Promoting School-Aged Children’s Physical Literacy in Schools: A Brief Review

Brooke Doherty 1, , Joonyoung Lee 2*, Jean Keller 2, Tao Zhang 2

Abstract

Physical literacy has received attention globally, but the definition and concept of physical literacy remains ambiguous in both research and practice. This obscurity may impede implementing the development of physical literacy among school-aged children. Therefore, the major purpose of this brief review was to examine the definitions, assessments, and benefits of physical literacy in order to promote school-aged children’s physical literacy in educational settings as well as to continue the dialogue for deepening related research and best practice. Using a narrative review approach, physical literacy is defined and its interactions with physical education are clarified. School physical education teachers and practitioners should understand the appropriate assessment of physical literacy in educational settings in order to promote school-aged children’s physical literacy.

Keywords: Physical education; physical activity; physical literacy; children; education

Category: Interdisciplinary PE.

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Young Children’s School Day Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity in Interactive Versus Non-interactive Active Video Games

You Fu 1, , Ryan D. Burns 2*, Emma Gomes 1, Ya-Wen Hsu 1, Zan Gao 3

Abstract

Differences between interactive active video games (AVGs) and non-interactive AVGs on sedentary behavior, light physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity has never been compared. Therefore, the purpose of this study to compare differences between two AVGs modalities on sedentary behavior, light physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity implemented within an academic classroom setting in children. Participants were 44 children (20 girls; mean age = 7.68 ± 1.49 years) from two elementary schools. Over 3 weeks, children in the non-interactive AVGs group completed three 10-minute classroom-based AVGs sessions daily (Monday-Friday). Children in the interactive video gaming group spent an identical amount of time daily in classroom-based AVGs. Participants’ school day sedentary behavior and physical activity were assessed across 3 weeks using accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were employed to compare differences between AVGs modalities across 3 weeks on sedentary behavior and physical activity controlling for the potential confounding of age and sex. Children participating in the interactive video gaming had a 14.4% greater increase in sedentary behavior, a 2.4% greater increase in light physical activity, and a 7.4% greater decrease in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from Week 1 to Week 3 relative to non-interactive AVGs (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and sex, across all time-points, children who participated in interactive gaming had lower sedentary behavior (mean difference = -45.8%, p < 0.001), lower light physical activity (mean difference = -5.1%, p = 0.034), and higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (mean difference = 24.7%, p < 0.001) compared to children participating in non-interactive AVGs. Although children participating in the 3-week interactive video gaming had lower sedentary behavior, lower light physical activity, and higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared to non-interactive gaming, the magnitude of the differences were not sustained across the intervention.

Keywords: Exergaming; schoolchildren; physical activity; sedentary behavior

Category: Fitness, Health, and Nutrition .

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Weight Loss Methods and Effects on the Elite Cadet Greco-Roman Wrestlers

Rifat YAGMUR1,* , Ozkan ISIK2, Yakup KILIC3, Ilkay DOGAN44

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine body weight loss methods and its effects on elite cadet Greco-Roman wrestlers' performance. The sample of research consisted of 146 elite Greco-Roman wrestlers. The “Athlete weight loss methodology and effects scale” and a personal information form were used. In addition to descriptive statistics, One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. Additionally, a Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between variables. Results showed that 47.9% of the wrestlers lose weight and 52.1% did not engage in a rapid weight loss regimen. It was calculated that on average weight loss wrestlers reduce their body weights by 4.68%. Statistically significant differences were found between dietary, physiological, and psychological sub-dimension effects in the weight loss groups. In addition, there was weak but positive correlations between weight loss percentage and diet (r=0.305), as well as physiological (r=0.231), and psychological (r=0.168) sub-dimensions. Accordingly, as the percentage of weight loss increases, wrestlers’ level of nutrition and fluid restriction increases. For this restriction, the physiological and psychological effect sub-dimensions levels also increase. As a result, when the diet sub-dimension of weight loss wrestlers was examined, it was found that 92.9% of the wrestlers engaged in food and fluid restriction. When the physiological effect sub-dimension was examined, it was found that 72.9% were exposed to muscle cramps and 72.9% to injury. Moreover, when the psychological effect sub-dimension of the wrestlers was examined, it was determined that 87.1% were exposed to stress, and 90.0% had decreased performance. As a result, weight loss before the competition was determined to cause physiological and psychological negative effects on athletes.

Keywords: Weight loss; wrestling; cadet athletes; competition

Category: Fitness, Health, and Nutrition .

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The Impact of Adventure Education on Students’ Learning Outcomes in Physical Education: A Systematic Review

  • Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, TX
  • * Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract

The major purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on adventure education or adventure-based learning in physical education (PE) between 1976 and 2018 in order to examine the effects of adventure education on students’ learning outcomes in PE such as physical and psychological outcomes. The secondary purpose was to explore PE teachers’ perspectives toward adventure education in PE. Sources in the literature study for analysis were searched through four electronic databases: Academic Search Complete, ERIC, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. The keywords ‘adventure learning,’ ‘adventure education,’ ‘physical activity,’ and ‘physical education’ were used for the literature searches. The literature articles were selected using the following criteria: (a) published in peer-review journal; (b) adventure education or adventure-based learning applied in physical activity (PA) and PE settings; (c) examining the relationship of adventure education with physical or psychological outcomes; (d) participants must be school-aged children; (e) written in English. Based on the above criteria, 11 articles were identified and synthesized to investigate the effects of adventure education or adventure-based learning on elementary and secondary school students’ physical and psychological outcomes. The results suggest that adventure education benefits the developments of school-aged students’ learning outcomes such as peer relationship and emotion

Keywords:Adventure education, physical education, physical activity, school-aged children

Category: Interdisciplinary P.E. category .

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An Examination of the Pediatrician-Prescribed Gaming App-Based Exercise Prescription: A Pilot Study

Sami Yli-Piipari11,* , Mika Manninen1, Bennett L Smith2, Casey Hollibaugh3 , Heather Chambliss4, Jon Udwadia5

  • 1 Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia
  • 2 Pinellas County School District, Pinellas County, Florida
  • 3 Department of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia
  • 4 St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
  • 5 Augusta University & University of Georgia Medical Partnership, Athens, Georgia
  • * Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract

This study examined the effectiveness of a physical activity (PA) intervention among obese Hispanic children delivered by a free mobile phone game application (app) recommended by a pediatrician. A sample of 40 (age M=10.16[2.01] years) children participated in this pilot study. Pre- and posttest data were collected on participants’ PA attitudes, intention, and objectively measured PA. The intervention was a game-based exercise prescription to engage in at least 20 minutes daily for seven days in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) delivered by their primary care pediatrician. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in sedentary time (SED) (t(26)=3.03, p=.007, d=.66) and an increase in moderate PA (MPA) (t(26)=3.19, p=.005, d=-.69), vigorous PA (VPA) (t(26)=-5.74, p<.001, d=-1.25), and MVPA (t(26)=-9.09, p<.001, d=-1.89). In addition, the study showed increase in PA attitudes (t(26)=-3.63, p<.001, d=-1.10) and PA intention (t(20)=-3.13, p=.001, d=-.94) after the intervention. This study provides evidence that a mobile app gaming-based exercise prescription may help to engage obese Hispanic children in health enhancing PA.

Keywords:children, Hispanic, mHealth, physical activity, sedentariness, Treasure Dash, technology

Category: Fitness, Health, and Nutrition .

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Analysis of a Heart Rate Measurement System on Student Motivation and Parent Satisfaction

Michael Joseph Pascal, Todd Estel Layne*, Carol C Irwin

  • * Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a heart rate measurement system on student motivation and parent satisfaction of the information obtained. Participants (n=27) either took a survey as a parent/guardian (n=11) or were interviewed as a student (n=16). The survey was based on a qualitative measure and used to determine the parents’ view of the importance of physical activity and physical education (PE) as an academic course. Additionally, feedback that parents received from PE teachers and what feedback they would like to receive in the future was analyzed. The student interview gauged the participants’ views on motivation, including if they were motivated intrinsically or extrinsically. Questions were also asked regarding physical activity, the use of a heart rate measurement system in PE classes, and the use of heart rate monitors outside of PE. The results showed that all parental participants completing the survey believed PE to be an important class for their child. However, 64% stated that they received no or little feedback regarding their child’s progress in their PE classes. During the interview, 63% of the student participants viewed motivation to be more internal. When asked if they were more concerned with their own heart rate or another student’s heart rate, 69% determined that they were solely concerned with their own heart rate. Findings revealed that the use of a heart rate measurement system had an overall positive impact on students’ view of physical activity. Students believed it would be beneficial to perform more activities with a heart rate measurement system, and parents viewed PE positively, but would like to receive more feedback and information about the activities being performed.

Keywords: physical activity, heart rate monitors, elementary, motivation, parent satisfaction

Category: Elementary P.E.

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Diversity Attitude Associations in Pre-service Physical Education Teachers

Paul Rukavina,1 Jody Langdon,2 Christy Greenleaf,3 Jayne Jenkins4

  • 1. Department of Health and Sport Science, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY
  • 2. Department of Health Sciences and Kinesiology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA
  • 3. Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
  • 4. Division of Kinesiology and Health, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether weight-related attitudes mediate the effect of goal orientation on cultural pluralism and diversity attitudes among pre-service physical educators. Results from 235 (Mage = 20.91 years, SD = 7.75) participants confirm the positive relationship between task orientation and attitudes toward cultural pluralism and diversity attitudes (valuing, appreciating, and implementing), and that individuals who possess negative character stereotypes mediated this relationship. In addition, the positive relationship between ego orientation and being uncomfortable with diversity was confirmed, along with the mediation of negative character stereotypes within this relationship. The results provide initial evidence for factors associated with diversity attitudes that should be addressed in physical education teacher education programs. As research in this area moves forward, it is important to develop and test evidence-based educational interventions in order to improve diversity attitudes and ultimately teacher effectiveness.

Keywords: goal orientations, obesity bias, , pedagogy, diversity, physical education

Category: Original Research

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The effects of the taekwondo training on children’s strength-agility and body coordination levels

Top Elif,1 Akıl Mustafa Li,1 Aydın Nur,1 Phd. Elif TOP1

  • 1. Usak University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Usak, Turkey

Abstract

The present study investigated the effects of the taekwondo training given to the children on their strength-agility and body coordination levels. Participants were 42 school children who are 7 to 10 years old. They were divided into the girls’ experimental (n = 9, X = 9.34±1.22 years, height = 134.44±12.77 cm, body weight = 34.16±12.04 kg, BMI [Body Mass Index] = 18.42±3.98 (kg/m2) and control (n= 8, X= 8.60±1.17 years, height = 129.12±9.52 cm, body weight = 31.01±7.85 kg, BMI = 18.29±2.31 (kg/m2) groups; and boys’ experimental (n= 13, X= 9.05±0.78 years, height = 135.23±6.95 cm, body weight = 32.81±7.46 kg, BMI = 17.77±2.99 (kg/m2) and control (n= 12, X= 9.06±1.03 years, height = 132.16±9.62 cm, body weight = 29.95±7.45 kg, BMI = 16.94±2.43 (kg/m2)) groups. The experimental groups of both boys and girls took a standardised group exercise program led by the taekwondo coaches, which lasted for three times a week in 12 weeks, while control groups of both boys and girls did not take any trainig. The bilateral coordination, balance, running speed-agility and strength of sub-tests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2) were employed before and after training. The results indicated that a statistically significant difference was found between strength & agility post-test values in girls. When the time interaction experimental and control groups of boys and girls were examined, a statistically significant difference was found between body coordination and strength-agility values. It was concluded that a 12-week taekwondo training given to the children in the 7-10 age group has increased the body coordination and strength-agility levels of the girls and boys.

Keywords: Strength, Agility, Coordination, Child, BOT-2

Category: Youth Sports

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Examining Associations among Motivation, Physical Activity and Health in Chinese College Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

Wenxi Liu,1 Xianxiong Li,2 Ph.D; Nan Zeng,1 Ph.D; Nan Zeng,4 MEd; Mohammad Ayyub1; M.Ed; Kun Tao,4 PhD; Qingwen Peng,4 PhD;

  • 1. University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
  • 2. Hunan Normal University, School of Physical Education, Changsha, China
  • 3. Shenzhen Polytechnic University, Department of Physical Education, Shenzhen, China
  • 4 Huaihua University, School of Physical Education, Huaihua, China

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the associations among motives and physical activity behaviors and health in urban college students in China. Eight hundred and eighty-seven college students (521 females; Mage = 20.51, SD = ± 1.67) were recruited from four universities in South and South-central China. Participants’ motives (i.e., interest/enjoyment, competence, appearance, fitness, social) toward to physical activity behaviors were measured by the established Motives for Physical Activities Measure (Ryan et al., 1997), while physical activity behaviors were assessed via the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaires for Chinese (Macfarlane et al., 2007). The data were collected in June 2016 and 2017. Participants’ total metabolic equivalent (METs) was calculated as the outcome of physical activity behaviors. On average, participants reported 412 METs (SD = 290.82) of physical activity for the prior week. Correlation analysis suggested that all motive components were moderately or highly correlated with one another (r = 0.37 - 0.74; p < 0.01), and these variables were significantly, yet modestly, related to physical activity behaviors (r = 0.12 - 0.24; p < 0.05). Regression analyses further indicated that the whole model explained 24.5% of the variance [F (5, 394) = 5.02, p <.01] when using motives to predict physical activity behaviors. Interestingly, participants’ interest/enjoyment was the only significant and positive predictor for their physical activity (β = 0.23, p < 0.01). Findings suggest that Chinese college students were relatively physically active on a weekly basis. Students’ interest/enjoy toward physical activity is a very important motive in promoting physical activity behavior among this population. Health professionals and educators are encouraged to offer a variety of interesting and enjoyable activities for Chinese college students with the goal of helping this population develop and maintain a physically active lifestyle.

Keywords:Motivation, Physical activity behavior, Self-determination Theory

Category: Interdisciplinary P.E.

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Chinese College Students’ Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior: A Transtheoretical Model Perspective

Shanying Xiong,1 M.Ed; Xianxiong Li,2 Ph.D; Kun Tao,3 Ph.D; Nan Zeng,4 MEd; Mohammad Ayyub4; Qingwen Peng,3 PhD; Xiaoni Yan,3 PhD; Junli Wang,3 PhD; Yizhong Wu3; & Mingzhi Lei3

  • 1. Shenzhen Polytechnic University, Department of Physical Education, Shenzhen, China
  • 2. Hunan Normal University, School of Physical Education, Changsha, China
  • 3. Huaihua University, School of Physical Education, Huaihua, China
  • 4 University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Abstract

Guided by the Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982), this study investigated the differences of physical activity levels and correlates (i.e., self-efficacy, decisional balance, process of change) across different stages of change levels among Chinese college students. The relationships between students’ physical activity correlates and physical activity behavior was also examined. The participants were 887 college students (365 males; Mage = 20.51, SD = ± 1.67) recruited from four universities in south and south-canter China. Participants completed a battery of established questionnaires assessing their physical activity correlates (self-efficacy, decisional balance, process of change) and 1-week physical activity levels. Results suggested that Chinese college students in the high stage of change group reported significantly higher physical activity levels and correlates than those in the low stage of change group. Pearson correlation analyses suggested that students’ self-efficacy was moderately related to other correlates and physical activity behavior. Yet, decisional balance and process of change were only modestly associated with physical activity levels for both groups. Regression analyses further revealed students’ self-efficacy emerged as the only significant contributor of their daily PA levels across the two groups. However, decision balance and process of change failed to predict physical activity levels. The implications for practice and direction of future research were discussed.

Keywords:Decisional balance, Physical activity levels, Process of change, Self-efficacy

Category: Interdisciplinary P.E.

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